Construction Project – Class Assignments Help

Intersection Upgrades at SR-18 and Rimrock/Puite Roads
Project Manager: Justin Talago Project Engineer: Charles Belt Traffic Engineer: Dhyia Benosh
The system of intersections our consulting group studied for potential traffic upgrades is
located just east of the center of Apple Valley, CA along State Route 18 (SR-18). SR-18
in this area is a four lane divided highway that runs east-west and has two parallel two-
lane outer highways to the north and south. These two outer highways have existing
accesses to SR-18 at Rimrock Road to the north and Puite Road to the south. Our goal
in upgrading this system of intersections is to increase safety and increase circulation.
In order to achieve this we first propose to reconfigure the intersection geometrically
and then propose to upgrade the intersection with a well-timed signal that provides
minimum average delay. After reviewing several alternatives we propose eliminating
access to the main intersection from the outer highways, which will increase the queue
distance for Rimrock and Puite roads. The signal design we propose is a fully actuated
signal with three phases, allowing for the addition of protected left turns from SR-18.
Apple Valley is a small town located in the Victor Valley region of San Bernardino
County. The current population is close to 71,000, but the surrounding region has
upwards of 313,000 residents. The town of Apple Valley is currently interested in
attracting new businesses to boost it’s economy. With ambitious goals of growth the city
is looking into potential upgrades to their transportation systems. The main arterial
running east and west through Apple Valley is State Route 18 (SR-18). The stretch of
SR-18 that we are focused on has minimal access to the surrounding residential and
commercial areas. The intersection of Rimrock/Puite roads is particularly isolated with
the next closest intersection to the east being at Rancherias Road eight tenths of a mile
away, and Tao Road nine tenths of a mile to the west. It is also important to note that
there are several businesses to the east that create a high traffic demand along SR-18.
Figure 1: Overview of project area.
Project Overview:
(1) Site Selection
The intersection of Rimrock/Puite Roads and SR-18 is the site we focused our study on.
Our first observation of the site was that the distance between the outer highway
intersections and the main intersection was very short. This short length allows very
little queue distance for traffic entering SR-18 from the outer highways and
Rimrock/Puite Roads; the short queue length could potentially lead to traffic backing up
into the secondary intersections at the outer highways. Our second observation was
that the left turn pockets from SR-18 to Rimrock/Puite Roads were blocked, which
indicated that there were likely safety issues with the left turn movements from SR-18.
With the left turns being eliminated there is a side effect of decreasing the circulation at
the intersection.
(2) Initial Analysis
This system of intersections is currently controlled by stop signs for access to SR-18;
east-west SR-18 traffic and traffic exiting from SR-18 have no restrictions. The layout is
such that there is a stop sign controlled intersection to the north of SR-18 which
intersects the northern east-west outer highway and north-south Rimrock road (see
Figure 2). The stop signs at this outer highway intersection restrict traffic flowing from
three of the four directions, but do not restrict flows of exiting traffic from westbound SR-
18. The traffic flowing to westbound SR-18 from the stop sign controlled outer
intersection then has to continue south approximately 40 feet and queue at an
additional stop sign until it can safely continue onto westbound SR-18. The same layout
is mirrored on the south intersection of the outside highway and Puite Road.
The traffic volumes at the intersection were collected from Caltrans and the City of
Apple Valley. Because the data was not completely representative of the each individual
lane and direction, some data was estimated (see Appendix I for volume data).
Figure 2: a. Painted chevrons indicate that the left turn is off limits. b.The queue distance is only about 40 feet.
After our initial observations of the geometric layout, and analysis of traffic volumes we
determined that this site was an excellent candidate for study to come up with a safer
and more efficient intersection through geometric means and signalization.
(3) Geometric Redesign
The first issue with the geometry of the intersection system is that there are three
separate flows of traffic inbound from the north to the intersection to be signalized, as
well as three separate flows inbound from the south, which induces longer queues for
each flow. In order to decrease the queue we propose eliminating the stop sign
controlled intersections of this system all together. This can be accomplished by
physically restricting traffic from passing through the intersection from the westbound
and eastbound directions of the north and south outer highways. Those flows will
Figure 3: Traffic volumes for existing system of intersections at SR-18 and Rimrock/Puite Roads.
instead be rerouted to the south or north and then back east or west to Puite Road and
Rimrock Road. This will consolidate all traffic to two single flows; one from the north
along Rimrock Road, and one from the south along Puite Road.
By closing off the outer highways we will be restricting the flow of traffic in several
places. In order to accommodate traffic flowing from the outer highway to the north of
SR-18 we propose a new road connecting Rimrock Road with Rimrock Road East. We
also propose a new driveway to accommodate traffic to the Apple Valley Lodge.
We also propose opening up the left turn pocket from eastbound SR-18 to Rimrock
Road, and from westbound SR-18 and Puite Road. By opening up these left turn
pockets at the same time as closing traffic from flowing through the outer highways we
are simultaneously redirecting the circulation of traffic in some areas while introducing
new circulation in other areas. Because of high volumes, the introduction of left hand
turns presents an issue of safety, but we will address this issue through signalization.
Figure 4: a. Roadway removal. b. Knuckle turn for easy turning
maneuvers. c. Cul-de-sac for easy turnaround
maneuvers. d. Addition of a Serrano Rd to
connect Rimrock Rd E and Rimrock Rd.
e. Driveway added for lodge.
(4) Signal/Signage and Signal Design
In order to better optimize traffic flow, and to address some issues with our geometric
redesign, we also propose signal and signage changes. By eliminating the intersections
at the outer highways, we essentially propose eliminating one stop sign controlled
intersection to the north and one to the south. With the proposed construction of a road
connecting Rimrock Road East and Rimrock Road we also propose adding stop sign
controlled intersections at the junction of Rimrock Road and Serrano Road, and at
Rimrock Road East and Serrano Road.
With the circulation of traffic from the outer highways being redirected to the north and
south, we propose adding a signal to the main intersection of SR-18 and Rimrock/Puite
Roads. The signal will allow better circulation and increase the safety for approaches
from Rimrock and Puite Roads. The signal will also allow for protected left turns from
SR-18, which will improve circulation from SR-18 to the surrounding community.
For the proposed signal we looked at two different options. Our first option was to use a
semi-actuated signal in order to keep delays to a minimum by allowing only two phases.
Figure 5: a. Stop sign controlled intersection
added. b. Signalized intersection with
protected left turns from main highway
Because the left turn volumes from SR-18 are above the threshold required for a
protected left hand turn (see Figure 6), we were unable to propose the semi-actuated
signal. With the requirement of protected left turns we chose our second option, the fully
actuated signal type. Our assumptions can be seen in Figure 6, and calculations for the
signal timing can be found in the next section.
Figure 6: New intersection layout with traffic volumes and other parameters.
(5) Signal Timing
Using the parameters from Figure 6, and the formulas given in class our group went
through the process of computing the signal timing. See calculations below:
Step A: Signal Phase
Phase 1 (Ø1) : protected lest turn for EB/WB
Phase 2 (Ø2) :TH/RT for EB/WB
Phase 3 (Ø3) : simple phase signal for NB/SB
Step B: Passage time
PT = d / 1.47 * S��
PT = 3 ˃ 40 /1.47 * (45-5) = 0.68 Sec OK
PT = 3 ˃ 40 /1.47 * (35-5) = 0.9 Sec OK
Step C: Yellow , all red time and total lost time
Y = t + 1.47 * s��/2 * a + (64.4 * 0.01 * G)
Y (Ø1,Ø2) = 1 + 1.47 * (45+5)/20 = 4.67 Sec
Y(Ø3) = 1+ 1.47 * (35+5)/20 = 3.94 Sec
ar = W+L/1.47 * S��
ar(Ø1,Ø2) = (12 * 2) + 20 / 1.47 * (45 – 5) = 0.74 Sec
ar(Ø3) = (12 * 4) + 20 / 1.47 * (35 – 5) = 1.54 Sec
L = (0.74 + 4.67 )* 2 + 1.54 + 3.94 = 16.22 Sec
Step D: CLV
From table below: CLV = 363 + 501 + 295= 1159 (tuv/hr)
App. Mov. Volume (veh/hr)
Equ. Volume (veh/hr)
Lane group tvu/hr
Volume/Ln (tvu/hr/ln)
L 346 1.05 363 363 363
TH 900 1 900 941 471
R 35 1.18 41
L 206 1.05 216 216 216
TH 844 1 844 1002 501
R 134 1.18 158
L 33 1.33 44
251 251 TH 148 1 148
R 50 1.18 59
L 43 1.86 80
295 295 TH 139 1 139
R 64 1.18 76
Step E: Min green time and detector placement
G(min) = l1 + 2 * INT(d/25)
G(min) all = 2 + 2 * INT (40 / 25 ) = 6 Sec
Step F: Cycle length
C = L /{ 1- Vc / 1615 * PHF * (v / c )}
= 16.22 / (1 – 1159/ 1615 * 0.9 * 0.95 )
= 100.9 Sec
Step G: Max green time
G(tot) = C – L = 100.9– 16.22 = 84.68 Sec
G(Ø1) = 84.68 * 363 / 1159 *1.5 = 40 Sec OK
G(Ø2) = 84.68 * 501 /1159 * 1.5 = 55 Sec OK
G(Ø3) = 84.68 * 295/ 1159 *1.5 = 32 Sec OK
(6)Traffic Simulation:
In order to check our work and confirm that our signal and signal timing provide better
circulation and fewer delays than the existing stop sign controlled intersection we ran a
simulation using Corsim software. The data entries and model set up can be found in
the Appendix II. The delays can be found in the tables below.
Table 1: Current Intersection Layout
Delay Time (sec)
Delay Time (sec
Delay Time (sec
Delay Time (sec
L 1322.16
L 5005
L 1965.54
L 948.93
TH 1070.87 TH 2710.99 TH 108.18 TH 79.8
R 3944.5 R 2259.76 R 651.93 R 2498.09
Table 2: Proposed Intersection Layout with Fully Actuated Signal
Delay Time (sec)
Delay Time (sec
Delay Time (sec
Delay Time (sec
L 1373.6
L 115.65
L 562.12
L 196.46
TH 1067.04 TH 3184.76 TH 53.19 TH 29.33
R 47.95 R 245.12 R 184.45 R 534.64
After reviewing the layout and traffic volumes for the intersection at SR-18 and
Rimrock/Puite Roads, our consulting team determined that it was a good candidate for
geometric redesign and signal upgrades. With our proposed geometric reconfiguration,
and the placement of a well-timed signal we think that delays on this intersection can be
reduced dramatically. Table 1 above shows the delays seen at the intersection with its
current configuration, and when compared with Table 2 it is clearly shown that delays
can be reduced quite dramatically at some approaches.
Beyond the decrease in delays, our team feels that the new configuration for the
intersection will help improve circulation and safety in a major way. By removing the
outer highway to the north and south of the main intersection we are providing a safer
approach from the north and south of the main intersection. The addition of a protected
left turn should allow better and safer access to the surrounding residential and
commercial area from SR-18. In addition to making the intersection safer and more
traversable, removing access along the outer highways will force through traffic that
might be traveling to the businesses outlined in Figure 1 to stay on SR-18. Overall, we
believe the proposed upgrades will work well to help improve the traffic flow to the
growing town of Apple Valley.
Traffic volumes and data from Town of Apple Valley:
Traffic volumes and data from CALTRANS PEMS website:
Corsim network for existing condition:
Delay from Corsim for existing condition:
Corsim network for proposed upgrades:
Delay from Corsim for proposed upgrades:CIVE 580 Traffic Engineering Design
Course Group Assignment
Amin Shabihkhani, PhD, PE
Department of Civil, Construction
& Environmental Engineering
San Diego State University
Project Requirements
1. Group of 3 to 4-person team
2. Final presentation:
a. 10 – 15 min presentation and 5 min Q/A
b. All team members should present
c. Presentations will be scheduled for April 26th and May 3rd, 2018
3. Final project report
a. TRB format paper or report
b. min 8 pages typed single-spaced,
c. Draft report due April 19th
d. Final report due: May 3rd, 2018
Project Scoring
 Group Project : 25% of the course grade
 50/100 Presentation:
 10 – Overall evaluation (Classmates evaluation)
 10 – Presentation framework, (Slides, timing, intonation, etc.)
 15 – Content of the presentation
 15 – Delivery of message
 50/100 Project report:
 15 – Overall paper structure and content
 15 – Adequate literature review/problem statement
 20 – Satisfactory project discussion/problem solution
Project Topics
 Option 1 (Recommended):
Find your own topic
e.g., any transportation problem you can observe in your daily life (Scoping of project is required)
Project Topics
 Option 2: Select from the list
A. Research Topics: (1) Review paper (minimum 6 related papers)
(2) Research paper (I can help you with selecting a topic)
B. Design / applied projects (1) Signal Design for Conventional or Unconventional Intersections
(2) Rail Crossing Control System Design
(3) Ramp Metering System Design
(4) Variable Speed Limit System Design
(5) etc.
Standard Procedures
 Identify Problem
 Literature Review
 Methodology Development
 Application/Evaluation
 Conclusions